Once Upon a Time in the 80s- Special Effects (Part 3 of 17)

Note: This is a recapitulation of a paper I wrote in film school. It will be published here in installments. This is part three you can read part one here and part two here.

The 1980s were marked by the emergence of the computer into mainstream American culture. The increasing accessibility and availability of this tool made its impact on the entertainment industry in a very powerful way. In 1984 one of the most famous commercials of the year was Apple Computer’s ‘Big Brother’ a play on Orwell’s 1984. While unlike the 90s where computers would soon come to reside in well over half of America’s households, and the science fiction aspect and the improbability of the device was demolished; they were becoming a much more practical tool.

The key in revolutionizing computerized effect lay with one man. In 1977 George Lucas formed Industrial Light and Magic to create the effects for Star Wars. Working out of Marina County California his company soon started to work on effects for many films. Their first heavy volume of releases was in 1985 with Back to the Future, Cocoon, Explorers, The Goonies and Young Sherlock Holmes which with ‘The Stained Glass Man’ had the first fully computer generated character. The rest was history in 1986 comes Aliens which took the computer generated character to the next level and it’s been an ongoing game of “Can You Top This?” ever since.

The fact that the special effects craze came about in the late 70s and grew exponentially in the 80s is like kismet. This was a decade that was jam-packed with action films but also had an abundance of fantasy films still around. This new technology opened up possibilities for narrative never before seen and they were used, for example, a journey inside a human body in Innerspace. The kind of film that was in demand with the American public was also the kind of film that was well-suited to the new special effects technology.

Before the apathetic generation-x-ridden 90s when films of social dementia disguised as poetry like American Beauty would run amuck, the 80s was a decade riddled with myth and fantasy, here’s a sample: The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, The Neverending Story, Legend, Dark Crystal, Back to the Future, Flight of the Navigator and so on. Escapism being a large part of the cinematic formula coupled with the youthful audience allowed for these advances and this type of storytelling which is only recently beginning to creep back into being.

The shift away from fantastical storytelling that occurred in the mid-90s and lasted until about 1999 in a way has impeded the progress of CGI. While in some films it blends in perfectly and is breathtaking in others it sticks out like a sore thumb. Sure, there are films and studios that will be cheap, but had there been more constant works the floor of marginally acceptable CGI would’ve risen. The man who is always breaking the glass ceiling of CGI excellence is George Lucas, and he says he tries to push other directors with every film he does, hopefully people will follow suit.

The computer generated image is one of the few things from the 80s which was expanded upon in the 90s. The technology has some very practical uses such as digital stunts and extras. With this technology the director’s vision can more easily be realized where as if something doesn’t exist the way he sees it can be created. This is one of the 80s lasting legacies. When we’re looking back upon this decade we, of course, can’t forget some of the films that came out of the decade, but we must also remember that filmmaking was forever changed in this decade because ‘Special Effects’ became a term that we could apply to almost every film. A new cinematic tool was beginning to be fully realized and is still being perfected to this very day.

 Footnote and Work Cited:

1. The Empire Strikes Back won an Academy Award for Special Achievement in Special Effects. The following year it was a category at the awards, Raiders of the Lost Ark and Drangonslayer were nominated.


2. Star Wars: Episode II- Attack of the Clones Dir. George Lucas. Feat. Hayden Christiansen, Ewan Macgregor, Natalie Portman, Christopher Lee. 2002, 20th Century Fox. DVD extra features.

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7 comments

  1. bob · April 25, 2011

    Film makers should try to do effects as close to reality as possible. Models, Puppets, etc. CGI should really only be used to clean up the films, remove wires, digital matte paintings etc. Terminator 2 is probably the best example of using CGI correctly.

    Case and point, the original Star Wars effect work has dated much better than the uncanny valley disaster of the prequels.

    • bernardovillela · April 25, 2011

      Bob,

      Thank you for reading and posting a comment. I have not been as frequent and consistent in posting this series as I’d like but I will complete it and hope you check back in.

      I agree with your premise if not necessarily the examples, I as a filmmaker am always far more comfortable getting it in the can rather than being so heavily reliant on post-production. However, that thought process is not prevalent for a number of reasons. I’m not inherently against CG but think it should mainly be reserved for doing what is literally impossible.

      Cordially,

      Bernardo

      • Bob · June 17, 2013

        Well 2 years late on the reply, but yes I agree. CGI should be used for the impossible. But I feel that today it is used to cut corners on many levels of filmmaking where its not needed. If we take the Starwars prequels again as example, they would use CGI for simple things like background furniture. I understand that some movies are budgeted differently then others, and CGI can help cut cost and when done correctly can look great. But for an experienced movie go-er like myself, it can really stand out. I can’t tell you how many people I have personally heard complain about how movies (mostly action/fantasy) have gotten far to “animated” and its like watching an Xbox game. I heard that from almost everyone I talked to about their experience with the Hobbit vs their experience with LOTR. But I can’t really point to many fingers as I use CGI in my own low budget productions more then I would like, though I just would expect more from studios pushing the GDP of Cuba on a production.

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  5. Bob · June 17, 2013

    *Also what I was getting at with the Terminator 2 example. 90% of the T1000 effect shots where actually practical effects. The movie only had like 4 minutes of CGI! 😀

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